Urinary tract infections are the commonest bacterial infection in human beings! They are common in young women. Elderly individuals are especially predisposed to infection. In any individual with urinary infection one needs to search for an underlying cause such as diabetes, stones etc. Infection may carry special implications in certain groups such as children or pregnant women. In children, infection may warrant an aggressive search for birth related malformations such as hydronephrosis or vesicoureteral reflux (Pediatric Urology). In pregnancy, urinary infection has been linked to low birth weight and prematurity and can lead to serious kidney infection in the mother called acute pyelonephritis.